At the beginning of the Stone Age, when people started taking shelters in caves, they made attempts to immortalize themselves by painting their images on rocks. With the gradual progress in civilization, they felt interested to see themselves in different forms. So, they started constructing
models of human being with sand, clay and stones. The size, shape, constituents and style of the model humans continued evolving but the man was not happy with the models that only looked like him. He had a strong desire to make the model ‘intelligent’, so that it could act and think as he did.
This, however, was a much more complex task than what he had done before.So, he took millions of years to construct an ‘analytical engine’ that could perform a little arithmetic mechanically. Babbage’s analytical engine was thefirst significant success in the modern era of computing. Computers of the first generation, which were realized following this revolutionary success,were made of thermo-ionic valves. They could perform the so-called ‘number crunching’ operations. The second-generation computers came up shortly after the invention of transistors and were more miniaturized in size. They were mainly used for commercial data processing and payroll creation. After morethan a decade or so, when the semiconductor industries started producing integrated circuits (IC) in bulk, the third generation computers were launched in business houses. These machines had an immense capability to performmassive computations in real time. Many electromechanical robots were also designed with these computers. Then after another decade, the fourth generation computers came up with the high-speed VLSI engines. Many electronic robots that can see through cameras to locate objects for placementat the desired locations were realized during this period. During the period of 1981-1990 the Japanese Government started to produce the fifth generation computing machines that, besides having all the capabilities of the fourth generation machines, could also be able to process intelligence. The computers of the current (fifth) generation can process natural languages, play games, recognize images of objects and prove mathematical theorems, all of which lie in the domain of Artificial Intelligence (AI). But what exactly is AI?