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Thursday, August 14, 2014



With the advent of the Internet and the plurality and variety of fancy applications it brought with it, the demand for more advanced services on cellular phones is increasingly becoming urgent. Unfortunately, so far the introduction of new enabling technologies did not succeed in boosting new services. The adoption of Internet services has shown to be more difficult due to the difference between the Internet and the mobile telecommunication system. The goal of this paper is to examine the characteristics of the mobile system and to clarify the constraints that are imposed on existing mobile services.  The paper will also investigate successively the enabling technologies and the improvements they brought. Most importantly, the paper will identify their limitations and capture the fundamental requirements for future mobile service architectures namely openness, separation of service logic and content, multi-domain services, personalization, Personal Area Network (PAN)-based services and collaborative services. The paper also explains the analysis of current mobile service architecture such as voice communication, supplementary services with intelligent network, enabling services on SIM with SIM application tool kit, text services with short message service, internet services with WAP and dynamic applications on mobile phones with J2ME.

Sunday, August 10, 2014



The Third-Generation (3G) wireless technologies offer wireless web, SMS, MMS, EDGE, WCDMA, GPRS etc. 4G is a packet switched technology, uses bandwidth much more efficiently, allowing each user's packets to compete for available bandwidth. It solves the non-standardization problems associated with 3G. Data transfer rate will be 20 to 100 Mbps, which is 10 to 50 times than 3G and 10-20 times faster than ADSL. Operating frequency range will be 3 to 10 GHz and the IPv6 protocol will be used. In this paper, fundamentals of 4G and their various proposed architectures are explained. In India it can be used to network rural and urban areas, reduce cost of communication, flourish educational activities, facilitate research and development, faster internet connectivity, more cellular options, real time information systems, crisis management, Tele-medicines and many more. The present 3G networks need not to be discarded, and can be used in conjunction with 4G technology. There are various architectures proposed that can be used to deploy 4G.



           In this age of universal electronic connectivity, of viruses and hackers, of electronic eavesdropping and electronic fraud, there is indeed no time at which security of information does not matter. The explosive growth of computer systems and their interconnections via networks has increased the dependency on the information stored and communication using these systems. This has led to a heightened awareness of the need to protect the data transmitted.
Thus the field of cryptography has got more attention nowadays. More and more complex techniques for encrypting the information are proposed every now and then. Some advanced encryption algorithms like RSA, DES; AES etc. which are extremely hard to crack have been developed. But, as usual, when a small step is made to improve the security, more work is done in the opposite direction by the hackers to break it. Thus they are able to attack most of these algorithms and that too, successfully. Even complex algorithms like RSA are no exception to this.

So, to deceive the hackers, people have started to follow a technique called ‘Steganography’. It is not an entirely new technique and has been in the practice from ancient times. In this method, the data is hidden behind unsuspecting objects like images, audio, video etc. so that people cannot even recognize that there is a second message behind the object. Images are commonly used in this technique.



        Robots are becoming essential and integral intelligent devices that are used to perform a variety of tasks, which sometimes are beyond the scope of human beings. They find extensive use in areas like industrial automation, nuclear installation, and pharmaceutical and medical fields, space research etc. The development of an autonomous mobile robot able to vacuum a room or even an entire firm is not a trivial challenge. In order to tackle such a task, so that it could be completed with some simplifications and also assumptions were made to the designer’s initial idea of an “ideal” autonomous vacuum cleaner. In this way, some functional requirements that would improve the robot performance were not taking into account due to their inherent complexity or to their mechanical implications. Probably the decision that the most affects the robot complexity is the ability of mapping the environment so that it would exhibit a much better efficiency when compared with the minimalist approach as the one followed (random navigation).With the aim of keeping our robot as simple as possible, while able to perform the initial goals, i.e. an autonomous vacuum cleaner robot able to randomly navigate through a room or a house with the minimum human assistance, the following specifications were found:

Obstacle avoidance
Collision detection
Autonomous battery charging
Autonomous dust bag dump

These specifications correspond to some of the expected behaviors that will be programmed into the robot. Other behaviors that will increase the overall performance of the robot, such as self calibration of the sensors and navigation with some memory (not completely random) were also considered. During robot moving, the obstacle is detected by the two sensors, one is ultrasonic sensor and another one is infrared sensor. Here these sensors give input signal to the controlling unit (i.e., 89C51 microcontroller). According to the input signal coming from these sensors, the controller unit interrupts the drive unit. Drive unit is fitted in the vehicle to drive the mobile platform. The driving unit works according to the signal form the controller unit. Then the vehicle moves left or right based on the obstacle detected by the sensor. Here the vacuum cleaning used by a hand vacuum cleaner, placed over a mobile platform Based on the vehicle movement dust are cleaned.



                    This paper considers the development of a brain driven car, which  would  be  of  great  help  to  the  physically disabled people. Since these cars will rely only on what the individual is thinking they will hence not require any physical movement on the part of the individual. The car integrates signals from  a variety of sensors like video, weather   monitor,   anti-collision  etc. it also  has  an automatic navigation system in case of emergency. The car works on the asynchronous mechanism of artificial intelligence. It’s a great advance of technology which will make the disabled, abled.


Abstract –

As the technology advances the human needs to grow towards comfort. KMAIL, A Dynamic mail using voice logging in cloud computing environment. Integrating voice communication into business processes can accelerate resolution time, reduce mistakes, and establish a full audit-trail of the interactions.  In this project, we are proposing a dual way of accessing the mail using Speech synthesis & a normal way in a cloud computing environment. We propose a generic framework consisting of a VXML-based service specification language. Service providers using the proposed service-oriented architecture can offer to their customers a protocol-neutral Web Service interface, thus enabling the deployment of a general and integrated cloud solution for mail.
Key words: KMAIL, VXML, cloud computing, speech synthesis.
I.                   INTRODUCTION
Today, people spend most of their time interacting with computers. Life is running at a microchip speed. Over the last decade, these electronic tiny minuscule signals have fundamentally revolutionized the way we live. People are spending more hours per day with machines than humans. They communicate through mails across the globe for official and unofficial information. Email & web have become part of our life. These mailing systems are developed by different organization with different modules and different feasibilities. But fail to reach the users who are physically disabled and senior citizens. And also fail to provide better ease for the users. The frequent and prolonged computer sessions may pose physical health risks such as visual strain, harmful effects of radiation, and posture and skeletal problems.
This problem can be overcome to some extent by enhancing the applications with speech synthesis and speech recognition systems. Here we propose a KMAIL reader system which is a unique system developed for members of the system can exchange information and is also supported by a reader which would read the contents of the mail by the automatic speech recognition.
The cloud computing database system is used for this system, in which we can enable Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). The selected mail in the inbox is processed to identify the name of the sender and recipient, subject and the message. This text is normalized and segmented at syllable level. Its corresponding syllable units are selected based on the context and selected units are concatenated to get the wave file for the given text.
It provides the user to register him as a valid user of the KMAIL service and then allows the user to access the modules of the system where the valid user can send mails, delete mails and receive mails in the users language. The mails which the user receives are converted from text to speech by using concatenative speech synthesis approach and an appropriate wave file is generated and then the speech of the text is played.

The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives the details of KMAIL architecture. Section 3 gives the details of the TTTS system architecture and different modules in the system. The conclusion in section 4 followed by future scope in section 5.

Green Computing

Environmental issues are receiving        unprecedented attention from businesses and governments around the world. In a special 2005 address to the World Economic Forum in davos, then-Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Tony Blair, argued that the weight of evidence is such that swift action must be taken to address global warming. This comment came alongside a marked shift in environmental dialogue across societies and in business leadership circles. As concern for climate change and sustainability continues to grow, and actions now ramp up, businesses are grappling with reducing carbon footprints while remaining profitable.
Moreover, in 2009, businesses feel the negative impact of our economic climate. Senior leaders – in the corporate office and in IT – are surveying their businesses for readily achievable cost savings to make up for tightened budgets and profit margins. IT departments, having run lean in the past, are on the hunt for new initiatives that reduce costs without compromising business lue.
Many businesses have discovered that Green computing initiatives offer costs savings benefits while reforming the organization, meeting stakeholder demands and complying with laws and regulations. In this study, IBM and Info-Tech Research Group find that businesses who complete Green computing initiatives realize significant cost savings alongside superior environmental performance.
Green computing: A Working Definition
Green computing is comprised of initiatives and strategies that reduce the environmental footprint of technology. This arises from reductions in energy use and consumables, including hardware, electricity, fuel and paper – among others. Because of these reductions, Green computing initiatives also produce cost savings in energy use, purchases, management and support, in addition to environmental benefits. Beyond cost savings and environmental benefits, some initiatives may address stakeholder and regulatory needs and demands.
For example, server virtualization allows businesses to reduce the capital cost of future server purchases, and the operational costs of energy, maintenance and management. Electricity footprints and the amount of equipment needing future recycling are simultaneously reduced, and often, the business realizes incentives or rebates for saving energy from local utilities or governments.


Network Security Traceback for Distributed Denial of Service

Problem statement: Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) is a serious threat to the internet world that denies the legitimate users from being access the internet by blocking the service. Approach: In this study, we proposed a novel approach, Geographical Division Traceback (GDT) for efficient IP traceback and DDoS defense methodology. DDoS attack is one of the most serious and threatening issue in the modern world web because of its notorious harmfulness and it causes the delay in the availability of services to the intended users. Results: Unless like a traditional traceback methodology, GDT proposes a quick mechanism to identify the attacker with the help of single packet which imposes very less computational overhead on the routers and also victim can avoid receiving data from the same machine in future. This mechanism for IP Traceback utilizes the geographical information for finding out the machine which was responsible for making the delay was proposed. The IP packet consists of the subspaces details in which the path denotes. It helps to make sure whether the packet travels in the network and falls within any one of the subspaces. The division of subspaces leads to the source of attack system. Conclusion/Recommendations: This method possesses several advantageous features such as easy traversing to the attacker and improves the efficiency of tracing the attacker system.

Key words: Network security, Distributed Denial of Service, IP traceback, packet marking, Geographical Division Traceback (GDT)



The Third-Generation (3G) wireless technologies offer wireless web, SMS, MMS, EDGE, WCDMA, GPRS etc. 4G is a packet switched technology, uses bandwidth much more efficiently, allowing each user's packets to compete for available bandwidth. It solves the non-standardization problems associated with 3G. Data transfer rate will be 20 to 100 Mbps, which is 10 to 50 times than 3G and 10-20 times faster than ADSL. Operating frequency range will be 3 to 10 GHz and the IPv6 protocol will be used. In this paper, fundamentals of 4G and their various proposed architectures are explained. In India it can be used to network rural and urban areas, reduce cost of communication, flourish educational activities, facilitate research and development, faster internet connectivity, more cellular options, real time information systems, crisis management, Tele-medicines and many more. The present 3G networks need not to be discarded, and can be used in conjunction with 4G technology. There are various architectures proposed that can be used to deploy 4G.



“I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.”

As an example, we extract the social network of an academic society and show that extracted information can be incorporated into FOAF [Friend of a Friend] representation and the PageRank algorithm is utilized to measure the authoritativeness of a member in terms of social trust or individual trust. 



            The purpose of this project is to study the feasibility of a music classification system based on music content using a neural network. A 1.5 second audio file stored in WAV format is passed to a feature extraction function. The WAV format for digital audio is simply the left and right stereo signal samples. The feature extraction function calculates 124 numerical features that characterize the sample. When training the system, this feature extraction process is performed on many different input WAV files to create a matrix of column feature vectors.


“Cloud” computing – a relatively recent term, builds on decades of research in virtualization, distributed computing, utility computing, and more recently networking, web and software services. It implies a service oriented architecture, reduced information technology overhead for the end-user, great flexibility, reduced total cost of ownership, on demand services and many other things. This paper discusses the concept of “cloud” computing, some of the issues it tries to address, related research topics, and a “cloud” implementation available today.
“Cloud computing” is the next natural step in the evolution of on-demand information technology services and products. To a large extent, cloud computing will be based on virtualized resources. Cloud computing predecessors have been around for some time now, but the term became “popular” sometime in October 2007 when IBM and Google announced a collaboration in that domain. This was followed by IBM’s announcement of the “Blue Cloud” effort. Since then, everyone is talking about “Cloud Computing”.

This paper discusses the concept of “cloud” computing, comparisons with grid computing ,utility computing ,autonomic computing ,characteristics of cloud computing and its architecture. The components of grid computing and its Criticism and Disadvantages is also discussed in this paper.

Thursday, August 7, 2014



Wireless sensor networks have been used for environmental monitoring over the last twenty years. This paper presents an architecture based on a Wireless Mesh network of sensors (WMNS) to measure air pollution in areas where there is a lack of internet access. We are motivated by the fact that air pollution is emerging as a key threat to health, environment, economy and the quality of life for millions of people; as urbanisation, motorization and economic activity increases. The situation becomes critical when the concentration of air pollution is high. So there is a necessity to develop an indicator concerning air pollution. The only solution to this problem is based on the recent research in Wireless Mesh Networks for internet connectivity in urban and rural areas. This system was successfully developed and implemented in a short time, with low budget and limited human resources in European countries. The information from these sensors gives the air quality status of some harmful gases like NO2, NO, O3, CO, CO2. The information also helps to manage the urban air quality by controlling factors such as road traffic.



Accidents occur in various places. They are mainly grouped into two categories. They are those that occur in cities and in rural areas. If an accident occurs in the vicinity of a city or town, the accident victim is helped instantly by the people of the locality whereas if it occurs in rural areas, the victim is helpless and his fate is at serious risk. The victim has to be helped by those who pass by the accident zone. The message has to be conveyed to the particular ambulance service and it takes some time for the ambulance to reach the spot. It is this TIME FACTOR which claims the life of the victim in minutes. The main problem is that they are not admitted to the hospital in proper time. Hence, there is a great chance for the victim to loose his life before he reaches the hospital. So to overcome this problem we design an EMBEDDED SYSTEM, through which it is possible to reduce the death rate caused by accidents (especially in rural areas). The embedded system consists of three components. They are SENSORS, GPS SYSTEM, and GSM SYSTEM. Sensors are used to sense the blood from the victim and to sense the damage of the engine of the vehicle that has met with accident. Once the sensor senses the blood and damage of the engine at the same time, the system that we discuss over here finds the current location of the vehicle using GPS communication. Then using the information perceived from the GPS satellite, it finds the NEAREST HOSPITAL and collects its address and phone number. Once it finds, it stores those details in its database. The GSM system fetches the phone number from database and sends the voice coded message or SMS to the corresponding hospital using its phone number. Then GSM system waits for some particular time to get an acknowledgement from that hospital. If it does not receive any acknowledgement, it requests the GPS satellite to find any other nearest hospital. GPS tracker finds the details of that hospital and stores it again in database. Again the GSM sends the same message to hospital and waits for some time. Once it receives the acknowledgement from hospital, it stops requesting the GPS system .This is the gist of the efficient accident detection system using 4-g technology via embedded systems.



Green  computing is the study and practice of using computing resources  efficiently. The plan towards  green IT  should  include  new  electronic  products and Services  with optimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings.
      In   order   to   achieve   sustainable   computing, we need   to  rethink  from  a  “Green Computing”perspective. Green   computing   or   green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable   computing   or   IT. In the article  Harnessing  Green IT: Principles  and Practices, San  Murugesan   defines  the  field  of  green computing  as "the  study  and  practice  of  designing, manufacturing,  using ,  and   disposing   of  computers, servers, and   associated   subsystems—such monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment." The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote the respectability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Research continues  into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.



The explosive growth of the Internet has brought many good things: electronic commerce, easy access to vast stores of reference material, collaborative computing, e-mail, and new avenues for advertising and information distribution. As with most technological advances, there is also a dark side- criminal hacker. Governments, companies, and private citizens around the world are anxious to be a part of this revolution, but they are afraid that some hacker will break into their Web server and replace their logo with pornography, read their

E-mail, steal their credit card number from an on-line shopping site, or implant software that will secretly transmit their organization's secrets to the open internet. With these concerns and others, the ethical hacker can help. This paper describes ethical hackers: their skills, their attitudes, and how they go about helping their customers find and plug up security holes.



Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network(typically the Internet). Computing cloud provides computation, software, data access, and storage resources without requiring cloud users to know the location and other details of the computing infrastructure. End users access cloud based applications through a web browser a light weight desktop or mobile appwhile the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. .At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.



Cellular networks are a critical component of the economic and social infrastructures in which we live. In addition to voice services, these networks deliver alphanumeric text messages to the vast majority of wireless subscribers. To encourage the expansion of this new service, telecommunications companies offer connections between their networks and the Internet. The ramifications of such connections, however, have not been fully recognized. In this paper, we evaluate the security impact of the SMS interface on the availability of the cellular phone network.

     The analysis begins with an exploration of the structure of cellular networks. We then characterize network behaviour and explore a number of reconnaissance techniques aimed at effectively targeting attacks on these systems. This paper describes in detail about the vulnerabilities due to DOS (Denial Of Services) attacks. The major problem seen in this method is overflow of the buffer. To overcome the above problem, we have proposed a new idea of Weighted Fair Queuing. We conclude by discussing countermeasure that mitigate or eliminate the threats introduced by these attacks. 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (biologically inspired intelligent robots using artificial muscles)

                Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines finds solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way. A more or less flexible or efficient approach can be taken depending on the requirements established, which influences how artificial the intelligent behavior appears.
Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biometrics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic appearance and behavior. This paper covers the current state-of-the-art and challenges to making biomimetic robots using artificial muscles. 


Tuesday, August 5, 2014

AN EMERGING FEATURE IN MEDICAL ELECTRONICS Personal Heart Monitoring System Using Smart Phones & Bluetooth sensors to Detect Life Threatening Arrhythmias


            This paper discusses a personalized heart monitoring system using smart phones and wireless (bio) sensors. We combine ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology to monitor the wellbeing of high risk cardiac patients. The smart phone analyses in real time the ECG data and determines whether the person needs external help. We focus on two life threatening arrhythmias: Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) and Ventricular Tachycardia (VT).

            The smart phone can automatically alert the ambulance and pre assigned caregivers when a VF/VT arrhythmia is detected. The system can be personalized to the needs and requirements of the patient. It can be used to give advice (e.g. exercise more) or to reassure the patient when the bio-sensors and environmental data are within predefined ranges.



This paper suggests a viable alternative to the deployment of large-scale troops in the border under inhospitable conditions. It is a drain on our economy maintaining such a large contingent of soldiers in a place like Siachen, etc., but our national security cannot be compromised for any reasons. Keeping this in mind, we have developed our own alternative for this using Bluetooth technology named "BORDER DEFENCE SYSTEM “ or shortly BDS. Bluetooth is a specification for using radio waves to enable computers, cell phones and other devices to communicate with each other through wireless over short distance protocol connecting devices upto 1Gbps and distance upto 10m.


 The unveiling of the Android platform on was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of
48 hardware, software, and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Google has made most of the Android platform available under the Apache free-softwareand open source license.
 Android is a freely downloadable open source software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications based on Linux and Java.
  Google developed Android collaboratively as part of the Open Handset Alliance, a group of more than 30 mobile and technology companies working to open up the mobile handset environment. Android's development kit supports many of the standard packages used by Jetty, and so, due to that fact and Jetty's modularity and lightweight footprint, it was possible to port Jetty to it so that it will be able to run on the Android platform.   This paper on Android deals with the history of the Android, the early prototypes, basic building blocks of an android application and the features of the android.


            Enormous  number  of  people  die  due  to  lack  of  medical  aid  at  the  appropriate  time  as in  therti  case  of  road  accident  in the  remote areas , sudden imbalances in  a  person living alone in  his house or heart  attacks  in  the  nights.
       In  such  cases , the  whole  accident  may  go  unnoticed   and   by  the  time  it is  discovered, it  may  have  been  too late . We suggest  a  slight  modification  in    the  existing  cellular  system , which  can  help  in  attending  to  such  situations immediately.
       Whenever  a  human  body  is  affected , physically  or  mentally , there  is  a  change  in  the  pulse  rate . In   the  case  of   serious  problems , there  is  a  drastic   change  in  the  pulse   rate . In  the   system  designed  by  us , we  sense this  change  and  compare  it  with  normal  level  to  arrive  at  conclusion .
        An  abnormality  detector   with  a  short  range  transmitter (SRT)  is   attached  to  the  wrist   watch  of  the  user . Abnormality   detector  periodically keeps   track  of   the  pulse .Whenever  there  is  abnormal  change , it  activates    the    SRT   which   then   sends   signal   to   the   short   range   receiver  (SRR) incorporated   in  the  cell  phone . Then   cell  phone  sends   help  signal  to  the  Mobile   Telephone   Switching   Office  ( MTSO ) . The   cell   phone   is   then located   by  Tri – Circle  method   using   the  received   signal's  strength  by  a  base   station  and  two  towers   in  a  cell site  and  medical  assistance  is  sent. 
       The  cell  phone  is  also  made  to  ring an  alarm  which  can  help  the medical team  to   reach  the  location  with  ease. Thus invaluable  human  lives  can  be  saved .                                 
   A  notable  advantage  of  this  system  is  that  even  though  the  cell  phone   is   switched  off , SRR  switches   it   on   using   the   Squelch  circuit .Hence , the  system  works  even  when  the  cell  phone  is  turned  off.




Traffic congestion and tidal flow management were recognized as major problems in modern urban areas, which have caused much frustration and loss of man hours. As a remediable measure, Traffic lights have been installed in most cities around the world to control the traffic congestion. They assign definite traffic rules to the road users by the use of traffic signal posts in standard universal color codes (Red - Amber - Green). Simultaneously, most of the road users are not in the habit of following rules & regulations strictly. Hence in order to regularize them, the Road Raging System is hereby suggested.
This system monitors and records those road users who violate the traffic rules such as red light. This can be implemented by using RFID technology. In this proposed system, we provide RFID tag for vehicles to identify both the vehicle details and user details. The RFID reader senses the vehicle that violates the rule and sends the details in encoded form to the PC. The vehicle is detected and stopped by the micro controller embedded in the vehicle. As a result, penalty amount is deducted from the users account details provided in the RFID tag and is intimated to the user by SMS send through the GSM Modem attached in PC. Then the vehicle is restarted by sending the signal from the traffic signal unit.