Robots are becoming essential and integral intelligent devices that are used to perform a variety of tasks, which sometimes are beyond the scope of human beings. They find extensive use in areas like industrial automation, nuclear installation, and pharmaceutical and medical fields, space research etc. The development of an autonomous mobile robot able to vacuum a room or even an entire firm is not a trivial challenge. In order to tackle such a task, so that it could be completed with some simplifications and also assumptions were made to the designer’s initial idea of an “ideal” autonomous vacuum cleaner. In this way, some functional requirements that would improve the robot performance were not taking into account due to their inherent complexity or to their mechanical implications. Probably the decision that the most affects the robot complexity is the ability of mapping the environment so that it would exhibit a much better efficiency when compared with the minimalist approach as the one followed (random navigation).With the aim of keeping our robot as simple as possible, while able to perform the initial goals, i.e. an autonomous vacuum cleaner robot able to randomly navigate through a room or a house with the minimum human assistance, the following specifications were found:
Autonomous battery charging
Autonomous dust bag dump
These specifications correspond to some of the expected behaviors that will be programmed into the robot. Other behaviors that will increase the overall performance of the robot, such as self calibration of the sensors and navigation with some memory (not completely random) were also considered. During robot moving, the obstacle is detected by the two sensors, one is ultrasonic sensor and another one is infrared sensor. Here these sensors give input signal to the controlling unit (i.e., 89C51 microcontroller). According to the input signal coming from these sensors, the controller unit interrupts the drive unit. Drive unit is fitted in the vehicle to drive the mobile platform. The driving unit works according to the signal form the controller unit. Then the vehicle moves left or right based on the obstacle detected by the sensor. Here the vacuum cleaning used by a hand vacuum cleaner, placed over a mobile platform Based on the vehicle movement dust are cleaned.